International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Tag Suleman Hussain Shah

Lysine Supplementation in Fish Feed

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Currently, lysine supplementation is attaining popularity with the growing aquaculture production. However,with the increasing cost of fish meal in the recent years, it is an ideal time to replace it with cost effective alternative feed sources in order to meet the increasing demands of fisheries sector. Because these alternatives are deficient in certain essential amino acids especially, lysine therefore their subsequent supplementation with lysine has been experimentally undertaken with the aim to evaluate their subsequent impact on fish growth and weight gain capacity. Results indicated that various fish species fed with higher lysine supplemented feed mixtures attained higher weights, increased fecundity, better immunity and demonstrated rapid growth rates as compared to fishes fed with lysine deficient diets. In addition, lysine supplemented alternatives to fish meal are far more economical and will be available in such a higher quantities to meet the demands. Moreover, it is noteworthy that lysine requirement varies with each fish species, therefore, lysine addition into fish feed will only give effective results when the supplemented amount will be in specific range required by our species of interest.

Keywords: Lysine, Essential Amino Acids, Fish Feed, Fish Meal, Aquaculture.

Heavy Metal Bioremediation in Soil: Key Species and Strategies involved in the Process

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Soil serves as one of the basic medium of life. However, the human activities are polluting the soil unintentionally. Consequently, a wide range of contaminants enter the soil. However, heavy metals are the most toxic of all these pollutants. Among these, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and arsenic are the most toxic and can cause multiple organ damages even when present in small quantities. Although, these elements are necessary for soil organisms in extremely low quantities. However, anthropogenic activities like mining,smelting, fuel burning etc. have disturbed the natural geochemical cycles of heavy metals which raises concern over their management and control. Physio chemical techniques have traditionally been suggested for the removal of heavy metals from the environment. However, there are many limitations regarding the use of these conventional approaches such as higher operating costs, potential side effects, relatively in efficient process, confined to temporary treatment and the harmful intermediate by products. Conversely, bioremediation overcome these limitations. It involves biological agents such as microorganisms (indigenous and extraneous) and plants to control heavy metal pollution. This is an emerging technology, which is comparatively efficient, economical and environmentally safe process, therefore its use should be encouraged for large scale cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there are certain barriers regarding the introduction, uniform distribution and adaptation of exogenous microbes into foreign and compact soil which need immediate attention and possible solution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Heavy metals, Soil Pollution, Contaminants.