Ammara Ashraf and Nida Rehman
Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan
The recent genome editing tools, such as Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN), Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) have been adapted rapidly to manipulate genes. CRISPR associated cas9 provides unparalleled control over gene editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system works in a sequence-specific manner as it recognize and cleave foreign DNA or RNA. The first experimental evidence of CRISPR Cas9 was provided by experiments of Streptococcus thermophiles (Lactic Acid Bacterium). For functional genomic studies, CRISPR screens provides a practical way. As suggested by existing evidence CRISPR screen is more specific and more reliable as compared to RNAi screen. CRISPR Cas9 has also used for intracellular defense against foreign DNA. In medical genetic researches the versatility,reliability and specificity of CRISPR is proved to be a promising player. In this review we tried to summarize the potential applications of this system in various research domains.
Keywords: Genome editing, RNAi, CRISPR, cas9, ZFN, TALEN