International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Time Need of Plant Medication: A Case Study Review on Tuberculosis

Muhammad Adnan, Ali Raza, Akaash Raza, Amir Ijaz, Muhammad Aftab Akhtar and Saima Noreen

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan

Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: adnan.msbt5@gmail.com

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is a deadly disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its treatment has proven a difficult task for humanity. More than 20 allopathic medicines are used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Almost all the drugs cause adverse effects like hypersensitivity reactions, hepatitis, vomiting, nausea etc. Due to these side effects of allopathic medication, the demand of use of herbal medication is increasing day by day. The demand of herbal medicines is also increasing due to the fact that M. tuberculosis showing much resistance against traditional allopathic drugs and attaining the condition of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant-Tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This particular review is aimed at importance of antiTB medicinal plants. About 15 plants are addressed in this review work, which have the potential to treat the tuberculosis. This review will stimulate researchers to conduct research on the anti-tubercular activity of different medicinal plants.

Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Allopathic Medication, Medicinal Plants, Drug Resistance, Anti-TB

CRISPR/cas9: An Emerging Revolution in Therapeutics

Makiya Aqeel and Ali Raza

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Department of Forensic Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: makia-aqeel@live.com

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Abstract

Clustered Regular Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats also known as CRISPR, the most rapidly adopted genome editing tool was discovered through studies on bacterial immunity system. As genome editing and studies related to its functionality requires to manipulate DNA and modify genomes. Already available genome editing tools like HR-mediated targeting, ZFN, TALEN and Cre-lox etc have certain limitation but the challenge had over come by CRISPR combined with cas9 protein. Because of the fact that future of medicinal and therapeutics seems to reside in adjustments at molecular level by genetic modifications and genome editing in cells. Alteration of a gene expression, inhibition of a gene through advanced methodologies of CRISPR/cas can provide insight tothe key cause of many globally recognized diseases. This review is brief overview of highlighted present day exigent assignments of this technology in various medical and biotechnological areas to explore further horizons for therapeutic domain of research.

Keywords: Genome editing, Therapeutic, CRISPR, cas9, ZFN, TALEN