International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Investigation of Biochemical Changes in Saliva and Blood of Diabetic Patients

Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Sajid and Nasir Iqbal

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.




Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic disorders characterized by an inability to produce sufficient insulin or to responds insulin that results high blood glucose level. Type-1 diabetes mellitus considered as an autoimmune disease and required life-long treatment with exogenous insulin. Blood glucose levels along with serum insulin level required for diagnosis. In present study serum and salivary biochemical changes in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed to evaluate non-invasive diagnostic markers. For this purpose, serum calcium, phosphate, total protein, alkaline phosphatase and salivary calcium, phosphate and alpha amylase were analyzed. Overall high serum calcium levels were found in diabetic patients. Serum phosphate levels were found lower in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase and total protein levels were also significantly higher in diabetic patients. Salivary calcium levels increased significantly in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. While the salivary phosphate and salivary alpha amylase levels significantly decreased in type-1 diabetic patients. It is suggested that saliva is absolute surrogate of blood that can be used to diagnose and evaluate the progression of type-1 diabetes mellitus and as non-invasive diagnostic body fluid.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Exogenous Insulin, Autoimmune, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Markers, Surrogate.