International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Saliva as an Alternative Diagnostic Fluid to Blood in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients.

Saliva as an Alternative Diagnostic Fluid to Blood in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients.

Muhammad Sajid, Nasir Iqbal, Abdul Razzaq

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), University of Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: msajid1189@gmail.com

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Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is impairment of kidney’s function over time that ultimately results in slow progression of renal failure. In present study serum and salivary biochemical changes in chronic kidney disease patients were analyzed and evaluate as non-invasive diagnostic markers. For this purpose serum calcium,phosphate, urea, creatinine and total proteins and salivary calcium, phosphate and alpha amylase were analyzed.Overall high serum calcium levels were found in chronic kidney disease patients. Serum phosphate levels were found high as compare to normal individuals. Serum creatinine and urea levels were also elevated. Salivary calcium levels increased significantly as compare to normal individuals. While the salivary phosphate and salivary alpha amylase levels decreased in CKD patients. It is suggested that saliva can be used as surrogate of blood to evaluate the progression of chronic kidney disease and oral health of these patients.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, CKD, Renal Failure, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Markers, Surrogate.

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