International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Section Articles Volume 1, Issue 3 (2017)

Investigation of Biochemical Changes in Saliva and Blood of Diabetic Patients

Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Sajid and Nasir Iqbal

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: arazzaq1122@gmail.com

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic disorders characterized by an inability to produce sufficient insulin or to responds insulin that results high blood glucose level. Type-1 diabetes mellitus considered as an autoimmune disease and required life-long treatment with exogenous insulin. Blood glucose levels along with serum insulin level required for diagnosis. In present study serum and salivary biochemical changes in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed to evaluate non-invasive diagnostic markers. For this purpose, serum calcium, phosphate, total protein, alkaline phosphatase and salivary calcium, phosphate and alpha amylase were analyzed. Overall high serum calcium levels were found in diabetic patients. Serum phosphate levels were found lower in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase and total protein levels were also significantly higher in diabetic patients. Salivary calcium levels increased significantly in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. While the salivary phosphate and salivary alpha amylase levels significantly decreased in type-1 diabetic patients. It is suggested that saliva is absolute surrogate of blood that can be used to diagnose and evaluate the progression of type-1 diabetes mellitus and as non-invasive diagnostic body fluid.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Exogenous Insulin, Autoimmune, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Markers, Surrogate.

Effects of Injected Insulin on Histological Structures of Pancreas Gland in Adult Male Indigenous Rabbit

Bassim Abdullah Jassim

College of Science, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

The study designated to investigate the histological effect of the insulin on the pancreas in male adult indigenous rabbit. Treated group carry out number of experimental animals with age range 1-6 months, the experimental animals were divided in to three treated groups (A, B, C,) and control group (D) each group composed of six animal with control and each group divided in to two subgroup. Each subgroup contained three animals composed of treated and waited subgroups according on the time of injected insulin. The histological result of first treated group showed the significant decrease in the thickness of the connective tissue capsule also tissue section of the Islet of Langerhans appeared hypertrophy in cell type that consist of the endocrine acinus regions of pancreas gland.

Keywords: Insulin, Rabbit, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, GDM, Pancreas

Time Need of Plant Medication: A Case Study Review on Tuberculosis

Muhammad Adnan, Ali Raza, Akaash Raza, Amir Ijaz, Muhammad Aftab Akhtar and Saima Noreen

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan

Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: adnan.msbt5@gmail.com

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is a deadly disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its treatment has proven a difficult task for humanity. More than 20 allopathic medicines are used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Almost all the drugs cause adverse effects like hypersensitivity reactions, hepatitis, vomiting, nausea etc. Due to these side effects of allopathic medication, the demand of use of herbal medication is increasing day by day. The demand of herbal medicines is also increasing due to the fact that M. tuberculosis showing much resistance against traditional allopathic drugs and attaining the condition of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant-Tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This particular review is aimed at importance of antiTB medicinal plants. About 15 plants are addressed in this review work, which have the potential to treat the tuberculosis. This review will stimulate researchers to conduct research on the anti-tubercular activity of different medicinal plants.

Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Allopathic Medication, Medicinal Plants, Drug Resistance, Anti-TB

Handedness and Gender Determination by Handwriting Examination

Peter Kiran and Almeida Myfanwy Alonza

Department of Forensic Science, Jain University, Bengaluru, India

Correspondence: peterkiran.a@gmail.com

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to find out if there are any differences between sinistral and dextral individuals as well as differences in gender based on their handwriting characteristics which will help in identifying the author in case of anonymous letters or any other document whose author is unknown. This study was conducted on 25 left-handed males, 25 left-handed females, 25 right-handed males and 25 right-handed females. A control passage was dictated to the subjects and they had to write it twice, in their own handwriting, on the two blank sheets provided. The characteristics of the handwriting were analyzed. According to the findings of this study, the horizontal strokes of the numbers “1”, “5”, “7”; the letters “A”, “E”, “F”, “H”, “I”, “J”, “T”, “f”, “t” and the Hyphen (-) executed from the right to the left direction and the circular strokes of the numbers “9”, “0” and the letters “O”, “Q” and “o” executed in the clockwise direction indicate that the character has most likely been executed by a left-handed individual while the horizontal strokes executed from the left to the right direction and the circular strokes executed in the anti-clockwise direction indicate that the character has most likely been executed by a right-handed individual.

Keywords: Questioned Document, Handwriting, Handedness, Gender, Forensics

Public Perception on Forensic Science and Its Importance

Pradeep Loyed Martis and Don Caeiro

Department of Forensic Science, Jain University, Bengaluru, India

Correspondence: pradeeployedmartis@gmail.com

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Abstract

A study was conducted in order to evaluate awareness about forensic science among general public. For this study 50 Individuals were interviewed and their opinions were recording against different parameters to define their knowledge about the field of forensics. According to the study conducted, majority of the public are not aware of the use of forensic science and its importance in crime investigation. The maximum number of respondents i.e. 52% said that they have come to know about forensic science through movies and serials. The most of the respondents i.e. 50% feel that forensic science is mainly used in police department. Maximum number of respondents i.e. 52% feels that public needs awareness to improve the field of forensic science. Thus we can conclude that there is a lack of awareness among public regarding this field. Because of that lack of knowledge, the field of forensic science is not given much importance and value in the field of crime investigation and the public unintentionally disturb or distort the scene of crime and further disturb vital evidences that may be present.

Keywords: Forensics, Public Perception, Crime Scene, Judicial, Evidence, Fingerprints