International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Section Articles Volume 1, Issue 2 (2017)

Development of Latent Blood Stain Using Luminol from Four Different Surfaces after Subjecting to Different Agents over Periods of Time

Domala Sai Krishna and Sujayaraj Samuel

Department of Forensic Science, Jain University, Bangalore, India.

Correspondence: saik22295@gmail.com

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Abstract

The study is based on analysis of the latent blood stains left over a period of time (15 days), subjected to regents like normal water, hot water, detergent, bleach, ethanol and developed using luminol solution on surfaces like cloth, paper, wooden plank, tile (porous and non-porous). The objective of the study is to understand whether the latent blood stains can be developed after cleaning agents are used to wash the bloodstains on different surfaces (porous and non-porous) and to understand if they can be developed after fifteen days, post subjecting to cleaning agents. Luminol is a chemi-luminescent chemical. The luminol solution is prepared using standard procedure and is used to develop the latent blood stains, the analysis is done based on color, intensity, visibility of the reaction of luminol with latent blood stain. The reaction is positive, concluding that the latent blood stain can be developed over a period of time using luminol after treating the subjected surfaces with reagents mentioned.

Keywords: Chemi-luminescent, Luminol, Blood Spatter, Ethanol, Forensics, Crime Scene Investigation

Isolation and Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia from Respiratory Infections

Rima Hasan

Department of Community Health, Technical Institute Samawa, Iraq

Correspondence: rimahasan2016@gmail.com

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Abstract

Present study aimed to study prevalence of B. cepacia in respiratory infection patients, 50 sputum samples were collected from respiratory infection patients were admitted to Al-Hussein training hospital, cultured specimen directly on blood agar then sub cultured on MacConkey agar, bacteria tested biochemically and with antibiotic sensitive test. Results showed 4 samples positive for culture with B. cepacia also isolates showed sensitive force fataxime 100% and resistant 100% for tetracycline.

Keywords: B. cepacia, Cefataxime, Tetracycline. Respiratory Infection, Sputum

Lysine Supplementation in Fish Feed

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Currently, lysine supplementation is attaining popularity with the growing aquaculture production. However,with the increasing cost of fish meal in the recent years, it is an ideal time to replace it with cost effective alternative feed sources in order to meet the increasing demands of fisheries sector. Because these alternatives are deficient in certain essential amino acids especially, lysine therefore their subsequent supplementation with lysine has been experimentally undertaken with the aim to evaluate their subsequent impact on fish growth and weight gain capacity. Results indicated that various fish species fed with higher lysine supplemented feed mixtures attained higher weights, increased fecundity, better immunity and demonstrated rapid growth rates as compared to fishes fed with lysine deficient diets. In addition, lysine supplemented alternatives to fish meal are far more economical and will be available in such a higher quantities to meet the demands. Moreover, it is noteworthy that lysine requirement varies with each fish species, therefore, lysine addition into fish feed will only give effective results when the supplemented amount will be in specific range required by our species of interest.

Keywords: Lysine, Essential Amino Acids, Fish Feed, Fish Meal, Aquaculture.

Leather Industry and Environment: Pakistan Scenario

Ghulam Jillani Hashmi, Ghulam Dastageer, Muhammad Saqib Sajid, Zubair Ali, Muhammad Faheem Malik and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: g.jilani1737@gmail.com

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Abstract

Leather industry is the most dynamic export earning sector and ranked 2nd position of Pakistan economy. It contributes 5% GDP of the country and provides employment over than 500,000 people. Raw hides and skins are converted into finished leather through tanning process. Various chemicals are used during tanning that ultimately discharged in the environment in different forms causing air, soil and water pollution. Chromium is a major tanning agent which has adverse effect on the environment. Exposure rate of tannery workers to such hazardous pollutants is greater and they suffered in various complications. This review article shall reflect the status of leather industries of Pakistan in the world and also highlight the major environmental impacts due to this industry.

Key Words: Tanning, Leather Export, Leather Wastes, Tannery Pollution, Worker’s Health

Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Proteolytic Enzyme from Fig (Ficus carica) and Kachri (Cucumis trigonus)

Haseeb Akram Sindhu, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Faiza Masood and Muhammad Sajid

Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (IBBT), UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: sirhaseebakram@gmail.com

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Abstract

Fig (Ficus carica) and Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) contain high concentration of proteolytic enzymes. In current research work, purification and characterization of papain (a proteolytic enzyme) from Kachri (Cucumistrigonus) and Fig (Ficus carica) was carried out. Kachri and Fig was crushed separately in a food blender byusing 0.1M (PO4)-3 buffer of pH 8.00, distilled water and 70% ethanol. Liquid mixture obtained was centrifuged and supernatant used as enzyme source. Purification of papain was carried out by Ammonium Sulphate precipitation and dialysis followed by Gel filtration by Sephadex G-50. Then characterization of papain such as protein estimation, determination of proteolytic activity (International Unit) of enzyme and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to determined molecular weight. Finally, the yield and proteolytic activity of papain was measured and compared with the commercial products. Crude preparation of enzyme has a wide specificity due to the presence of various proteinase and peptidase isozymes. These enzymes being present in natural fruits were free from any toxic effects and consequently can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Key words: Kachri, Fig, Papain, SDS-PAGE, Sephadex G-50, Isozymes

Heavy Metal Bioremediation in Soil: Key Species and Strategies involved in the Process

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Soil serves as one of the basic medium of life. However, the human activities are polluting the soil unintentionally. Consequently, a wide range of contaminants enter the soil. However, heavy metals are the most toxic of all these pollutants. Among these, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and arsenic are the most toxic and can cause multiple organ damages even when present in small quantities. Although, these elements are necessary for soil organisms in extremely low quantities. However, anthropogenic activities like mining,smelting, fuel burning etc. have disturbed the natural geochemical cycles of heavy metals which raises concern over their management and control. Physio chemical techniques have traditionally been suggested for the removal of heavy metals from the environment. However, there are many limitations regarding the use of these conventional approaches such as higher operating costs, potential side effects, relatively in efficient process, confined to temporary treatment and the harmful intermediate by products. Conversely, bioremediation overcome these limitations. It involves biological agents such as microorganisms (indigenous and extraneous) and plants to control heavy metal pollution. This is an emerging technology, which is comparatively efficient, economical and environmentally safe process, therefore its use should be encouraged for large scale cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there are certain barriers regarding the introduction, uniform distribution and adaptation of exogenous microbes into foreign and compact soil which need immediate attention and possible solution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Heavy metals, Soil Pollution, Contaminants.

Mechanism Behind and Future Prospective of CRISPR/Cas9 as Revolutionizing Genome Editing Technology

Ammara Ashraf and Nida Rehman

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence: ammara.ashraf52@gmail.com

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Abstract

The recent genome editing tools, such as Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN), Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) have been adapted rapidly to manipulate genes. CRISPR associated cas9 provides unparalleled control over gene editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system works in a sequence-specific manner as it recognize and cleave foreign DNA or RNA. The first experimental evidence of CRISPR Cas9 was provided by experiments of Streptococcus thermophiles (Lactic Acid Bacterium). For functional genomic studies, CRISPR screens provides a practical way. As suggested by existing evidence CRISPR screen is more specific and more reliable as compared to RNAi screen. CRISPR Cas9 has also used for intracellular defense against foreign DNA. In medical genetic researches the versatility,reliability and specificity of CRISPR is proved to be a promising player. In this review we tried to summarize the potential applications of this system in various research domains.

Keywords: Genome editing, RNAi, CRISPR, cas9, ZFN, TALEN