International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Section Articles Biological Sciences

Pond Water Pollution: A Barrier to Commercial Fish Production

Ihtsham Liaqat, Umair Bukhtiar and Muhammad Faheem Malik

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: ihtshamliaqat101@gmail.com

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Abstract

For every country there is vast scope for fish forming but the share of commercial fish production in total (GNP)Gross National Product is not considerable globally. Pollution is a major factor posing significant danger to hygiene issue for fish population inhabiting in pond water. Its major role is contribution to reduce the fish density and act as barrier against the commercial fish production. Different kinds of pollution like atmospheric pollution,biological pollution, eutrophication and chemical pollution such as acidic rain (acidification) effect pond fish production. Although commercial fish production is intensively managed but there are many hurdles that reduce the yield. This review covers the effect of different kinds of pollution on fish which are produced commercially in ponds.

Keywords: Pollution, Population, Commercial Fish Production, Fish Density. Pond Water

Saliva as an Alternative Diagnostic Fluid to Blood in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Patients.

Muhammad Sajid, Nasir Iqbal, Abdul Razzaq

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), University of Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: msajid1189@gmail.com

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Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is impairment of kidney’s function over time that ultimately results in slow progression of renal failure. In present study serum and salivary biochemical changes in chronic kidney disease patients were analyzed and evaluate as non-invasive diagnostic markers. For this purpose serum calcium,phosphate, urea, creatinine and total proteins and salivary calcium, phosphate and alpha amylase were analyzed.Overall high serum calcium levels were found in chronic kidney disease patients. Serum phosphate levels were found high as compare to normal individuals. Serum creatinine and urea levels were also elevated. Salivary calcium levels increased significantly as compare to normal individuals. While the salivary phosphate and salivary alpha amylase levels decreased in CKD patients. It is suggested that saliva can be used as surrogate of blood to evaluate the progression of chronic kidney disease and oral health of these patients.

Keywords: Chronic Kidney Disease, CKD, Renal Failure, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Markers, Surrogate.

Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of Helicobacter pylori through 16S rRNA Gene Isolated from Gastritis Biopsies

Laith Abdul Hassan AL Obaidi and Abeer M. Jabbar

Department of biology, College of Science, Al Muthanna University, Iraq

Correspondence: laithukm@gmail.com

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Abstract

Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences is one of the most common methods for investigating the phylogeny and taxonomy of bacteria. The aim of this study is to compare Iraqi H. pylori isolates with isolates from different geographical locations. Total of 45 isolates from males and females with gastritis in Samawah and Diwaniya provinces were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene by PCR then followed by DNA sequencing. The H. pylori 16S rRNA gene was amplified (1471 bp in size) and sequencing. The target sequence has been deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under the accession Number (KP893893). Homology sequence analysis showed high similarity between our sequence with H. acinonychis and H. cetorum (98%) and the lowest similarity between H. pylori and Microcystis aeruginosa (51%). The phylogenetic analysis displayed high correlation between H. pylori and H. acinonychis (a species infected cheetahs and other big cats) at bootstrap value 80%. The cluster containing these two species is nearest from the African out group root M. aeruginosa. This study provided an additional insight into the profile of our 16S rRNA gene and indicates that the Iraqi H.pylori isolates are closely related to a South African isolate.

Keywords: Helicobacter. Pylori, 16S rRNA, Gastritis, Phylogenetic, Gastritis Biopsies

Bacteriological Characterization of Diabetic and Non- Diabetic Wound Infections in Samawah City, Iraq

Mouna Akeel Hamed Al-Oebady

College of Science, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq

Correspondence: mouna.aloebady@yahoo.com

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Abstract

A total of 150 samples (75 diabetic and 75 non-diabetic) of different ages and both genders (86 male and 64 female) were collected from patients suffering from wound infections who attending the Samawah Hospital of AL-Muthanna governorates through the period of one year (December 2015 – December 2016). The isolation and identification methods of bacterial isolates were followed upon the morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics in addition to the confirmatory systems such as CHROM agar and Api 20 for differentiation among bacterial species. The phenotypic results showed that the isolation percentage of Propionibacterium granulosumas an anaerobic bacteria was 22(18.6%) as predominant pathogens in diabetic wound followed by Staphylococcus aureus as aerobic bacteria 17(14.4%). While Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 17(15.7%) a predominant pathogens isolated from non-diabetic wound infection. Isolated culture was treated with antibiotics and Amoxycillin was found as the best effective antibiotic which gave (16mm) inhibition zone in comparison with other standard antibiotics.

Key words: Bacterial Isolation, Diabetics, Antibiotics. CHROM agar, APi 20, Wound Infections

CRISPR/cas9: An Emerging Revolution in Therapeutics

Makiya Aqeel and Ali Raza

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Department of Forensic Sciences, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: makia-aqeel@live.com

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Abstract

Clustered Regular Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats also known as CRISPR, the most rapidly adopted genome editing tool was discovered through studies on bacterial immunity system. As genome editing and studies related to its functionality requires to manipulate DNA and modify genomes. Already available genome editing tools like HR-mediated targeting, ZFN, TALEN and Cre-lox etc have certain limitation but the challenge had over come by CRISPR combined with cas9 protein. Because of the fact that future of medicinal and therapeutics seems to reside in adjustments at molecular level by genetic modifications and genome editing in cells. Alteration of a gene expression, inhibition of a gene through advanced methodologies of CRISPR/cas can provide insight tothe key cause of many globally recognized diseases. This review is brief overview of highlighted present day exigent assignments of this technology in various medical and biotechnological areas to explore further horizons for therapeutic domain of research.

Keywords: Genome editing, Therapeutic, CRISPR, cas9, ZFN, TALEN