International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics

Section Articles Biological Sciences

Investigation of Biochemical Changes in Saliva and Blood of Diabetic Patients

Abdul Razzaq, Muhammad Sajid and Nasir Iqbal

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: arazzaq1122@gmail.com

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is group of metabolic disorders characterized by an inability to produce sufficient insulin or to responds insulin that results high blood glucose level. Type-1 diabetes mellitus considered as an autoimmune disease and required life-long treatment with exogenous insulin. Blood glucose levels along with serum insulin level required for diagnosis. In present study serum and salivary biochemical changes in type-1 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed to evaluate non-invasive diagnostic markers. For this purpose, serum calcium, phosphate, total protein, alkaline phosphatase and salivary calcium, phosphate and alpha amylase were analyzed. Overall high serum calcium levels were found in diabetic patients. Serum phosphate levels were found lower in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. Serum alkaline phosphatase and total protein levels were also significantly higher in diabetic patients. Salivary calcium levels increased significantly in diabetic patients as compare to normal individuals. While the salivary phosphate and salivary alpha amylase levels significantly decreased in type-1 diabetic patients. It is suggested that saliva is absolute surrogate of blood that can be used to diagnose and evaluate the progression of type-1 diabetes mellitus and as non-invasive diagnostic body fluid.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Exogenous Insulin, Autoimmune, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Markers, Surrogate.

Effects of Injected Insulin on Histological Structures of Pancreas Gland in Adult Male Indigenous Rabbit

Bassim Abdullah Jassim

College of Science, Al-Muthanna University, Iraq

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

The study designated to investigate the histological effect of the insulin on the pancreas in male adult indigenous rabbit. Treated group carry out number of experimental animals with age range 1-6 months, the experimental animals were divided in to three treated groups (A, B, C,) and control group (D) each group composed of six animal with control and each group divided in to two subgroup. Each subgroup contained three animals composed of treated and waited subgroups according on the time of injected insulin. The histological result of first treated group showed the significant decrease in the thickness of the connective tissue capsule also tissue section of the Islet of Langerhans appeared hypertrophy in cell type that consist of the endocrine acinus regions of pancreas gland.

Keywords: Insulin, Rabbit, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, GDM, Pancreas

Time Need of Plant Medication: A Case Study Review on Tuberculosis

Muhammad Adnan, Ali Raza, Akaash Raza, Amir Ijaz, Muhammad Aftab Akhtar and Saima Noreen

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan

Department of Zoology, Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: adnan.msbt5@gmail.com

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Abstract

Tuberculosis is a deadly disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its treatment has proven a difficult task for humanity. More than 20 allopathic medicines are used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Almost all the drugs cause adverse effects like hypersensitivity reactions, hepatitis, vomiting, nausea etc. Due to these side effects of allopathic medication, the demand of use of herbal medication is increasing day by day. The demand of herbal medicines is also increasing due to the fact that M. tuberculosis showing much resistance against traditional allopathic drugs and attaining the condition of Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug Resistant-Tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This particular review is aimed at importance of antiTB medicinal plants. About 15 plants are addressed in this review work, which have the potential to treat the tuberculosis. This review will stimulate researchers to conduct research on the anti-tubercular activity of different medicinal plants.

Key words: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Allopathic Medication, Medicinal Plants, Drug Resistance, Anti-TB

Isolation and Characterization of Burkholderia cepacia from Respiratory Infections

Rima Hasan

Department of Community Health, Technical Institute Samawa, Iraq

Correspondence: rimahasan2016@gmail.com

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Abstract

Present study aimed to study prevalence of B. cepacia in respiratory infection patients, 50 sputum samples were collected from respiratory infection patients were admitted to Al-Hussein training hospital, cultured specimen directly on blood agar then sub cultured on MacConkey agar, bacteria tested biochemically and with antibiotic sensitive test. Results showed 4 samples positive for culture with B. cepacia also isolates showed sensitive force fataxime 100% and resistant 100% for tetracycline.

Keywords: B. cepacia, Cefataxime, Tetracycline. Respiratory Infection, Sputum

Lysine Supplementation in Fish Feed

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Currently, lysine supplementation is attaining popularity with the growing aquaculture production. However,with the increasing cost of fish meal in the recent years, it is an ideal time to replace it with cost effective alternative feed sources in order to meet the increasing demands of fisheries sector. Because these alternatives are deficient in certain essential amino acids especially, lysine therefore their subsequent supplementation with lysine has been experimentally undertaken with the aim to evaluate their subsequent impact on fish growth and weight gain capacity. Results indicated that various fish species fed with higher lysine supplemented feed mixtures attained higher weights, increased fecundity, better immunity and demonstrated rapid growth rates as compared to fishes fed with lysine deficient diets. In addition, lysine supplemented alternatives to fish meal are far more economical and will be available in such a higher quantities to meet the demands. Moreover, it is noteworthy that lysine requirement varies with each fish species, therefore, lysine addition into fish feed will only give effective results when the supplemented amount will be in specific range required by our species of interest.

Keywords: Lysine, Essential Amino Acids, Fish Feed, Fish Meal, Aquaculture.

Leather Industry and Environment: Pakistan Scenario

Ghulam Jillani Hashmi, Ghulam Dastageer, Muhammad Saqib Sajid, Zubair Ali, Muhammad Faheem Malik and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: g.jilani1737@gmail.com

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Abstract

Leather industry is the most dynamic export earning sector and ranked 2nd position of Pakistan economy. It contributes 5% GDP of the country and provides employment over than 500,000 people. Raw hides and skins are converted into finished leather through tanning process. Various chemicals are used during tanning that ultimately discharged in the environment in different forms causing air, soil and water pollution. Chromium is a major tanning agent which has adverse effect on the environment. Exposure rate of tannery workers to such hazardous pollutants is greater and they suffered in various complications. This review article shall reflect the status of leather industries of Pakistan in the world and also highlight the major environmental impacts due to this industry.

Key Words: Tanning, Leather Export, Leather Wastes, Tannery Pollution, Worker’s Health

Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Proteolytic Enzyme from Fig (Ficus carica) and Kachri (Cucumis trigonus)

Haseeb Akram Sindhu, Abu Saeed Hashmi, Faiza Masood and Muhammad Sajid

Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (IBBT), UVAS, Lahore, Pakistan.

Correspondence: sirhaseebakram@gmail.com

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Abstract

Fig (Ficus carica) and Kachri (Cucumis trigonus) contain high concentration of proteolytic enzymes. In current research work, purification and characterization of papain (a proteolytic enzyme) from Kachri (Cucumistrigonus) and Fig (Ficus carica) was carried out. Kachri and Fig was crushed separately in a food blender byusing 0.1M (PO4)-3 buffer of pH 8.00, distilled water and 70% ethanol. Liquid mixture obtained was centrifuged and supernatant used as enzyme source. Purification of papain was carried out by Ammonium Sulphate precipitation and dialysis followed by Gel filtration by Sephadex G-50. Then characterization of papain such as protein estimation, determination of proteolytic activity (International Unit) of enzyme and SDS-PAGE analysis were performed to determined molecular weight. Finally, the yield and proteolytic activity of papain was measured and compared with the commercial products. Crude preparation of enzyme has a wide specificity due to the presence of various proteinase and peptidase isozymes. These enzymes being present in natural fruits were free from any toxic effects and consequently can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Key words: Kachri, Fig, Papain, SDS-PAGE, Sephadex G-50, Isozymes

Heavy Metal Bioremediation in Soil: Key Species and Strategies involved in the Process

Bilal Mukhtar, Muhammad Faheem Malik, Suleman Hussain Shah, Abdullah Azzam, Slahuddin and Ihtisham Liaqat

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Gujrat, Pakistan

Correspondence: bilalmukhtar457@gmail.com

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Abstract

Soil serves as one of the basic medium of life. However, the human activities are polluting the soil unintentionally. Consequently, a wide range of contaminants enter the soil. However, heavy metals are the most toxic of all these pollutants. Among these, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury and arsenic are the most toxic and can cause multiple organ damages even when present in small quantities. Although, these elements are necessary for soil organisms in extremely low quantities. However, anthropogenic activities like mining,smelting, fuel burning etc. have disturbed the natural geochemical cycles of heavy metals which raises concern over their management and control. Physio chemical techniques have traditionally been suggested for the removal of heavy metals from the environment. However, there are many limitations regarding the use of these conventional approaches such as higher operating costs, potential side effects, relatively in efficient process, confined to temporary treatment and the harmful intermediate by products. Conversely, bioremediation overcome these limitations. It involves biological agents such as microorganisms (indigenous and extraneous) and plants to control heavy metal pollution. This is an emerging technology, which is comparatively efficient, economical and environmentally safe process, therefore its use should be encouraged for large scale cleanup of soil contaminated with heavy metals. However, there are certain barriers regarding the introduction, uniform distribution and adaptation of exogenous microbes into foreign and compact soil which need immediate attention and possible solution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Soil, Heavy metals, Soil Pollution, Contaminants.

Mechanism Behind and Future Prospective of CRISPR/Cas9 as Revolutionizing Genome Editing Technology

Ammara Ashraf and Nida Rehman

Department of Microbiology, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence: ammara.ashraf52@gmail.com

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Abstract

The recent genome editing tools, such as Transcription Activator Like Effector Nucleases (TALEN), Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN) and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) have been adapted rapidly to manipulate genes. CRISPR associated cas9 provides unparalleled control over gene editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system works in a sequence-specific manner as it recognize and cleave foreign DNA or RNA. The first experimental evidence of CRISPR Cas9 was provided by experiments of Streptococcus thermophiles (Lactic Acid Bacterium). For functional genomic studies, CRISPR screens provides a practical way. As suggested by existing evidence CRISPR screen is more specific and more reliable as compared to RNAi screen. CRISPR Cas9 has also used for intracellular defense against foreign DNA. In medical genetic researches the versatility,reliability and specificity of CRISPR is proved to be a promising player. In this review we tried to summarize the potential applications of this system in various research domains.

Keywords: Genome editing, RNAi, CRISPR, cas9, ZFN, TALEN

Bacteriological and Physiochemical Analysis of Drinking Water from Different Areas of District Gujrat, Pakistan

Asmaa Bashir Ahmed, Mohsin Gulzar Barq and Sidra Javed

Department of Zoology, University of Gujrat, Gujrat, Pakistan

Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence: Asma4494@gmail.com

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Abstract

The contribution of water in causing water borne bacterial infections is continuously neglected and much focus is made on treating infections rather than preventing infections. The human body is easily exposed to rich bacterial diversity of water and it necessitates its bacteriological and physiological analysis to made awareness about its careful use. The quality of water is deteriorating very rapidly due to number of factors.Drinking water samples from different areas of district Gujrat, Pakistan were subjected to bacteriological and physiochemical analysis. In addition to physical parameters like pH, presence of foul odor and suspended particles, temperature of samples, the potential of water to cause infection was also analyzed by studying microbial count. Morphological attributes such as color, shape, surface, elevation and opacity of bacterial colonies were observed. Gram staining and biochemical tests (oxidase test and catalase test) on pure bacterial cultures isolated from drinking water samples, exposed the presence of Staphylococcus, Bacillus,Streptococcus, Streptomyces, Escherichia, Enterococcus and Citrobacter. Furthermore, the bio film forming capacity of the isolated species was also estimated to establish its contribution in inducing infections in the local community. Growths of these strains on Congo red supplemented nutrient agar have shown their bio film forming ability and represented different morphotypes including rough dry and red (rdar) and smooth and white (saw) due to binding expression of Congo red dye with extracellular components of bacterial strains. Citrobacter and Escherichia were present in 37.5% samples and 62.5% water samples contain Staphylococcus strains. Bio film forming characteristic is shown by all isolated bacterial strains.

Keywords: Bacteriological, Physiochemical, Drinking Water, Morphotypes, Staphylococcus